Dual battery system.

Information for people about to or have installed a dual battery in their 4WD.
Highlighting problems I have incounted along the way and how to significantly extend the lifespan of your battery.
I'am a electronics technician with over 25 years in the telecommunication industry working with 50v power.
The use of the information within this website is at the users own risk.

Fridge/freezer.
Looked around at different models, buying guide and comparo 12v fridge/freezers that can have both fridge/freezer at the same time in the one unit with low power consumption and can fit in space allocated for it and requires no insulating cover and is Australian made (suits our climate).
Well after buying a 47L Evakool fridge/freezer, 55L a close second - has more capacity, thicker insulation and lower power consumption, but no second tie down handle, only a narrow groove in plastic handle.
Freezer/fridge statistics at ambient temperature of 20C
SettingMin freezer tempMax freezer tempMin fridge tempMax fridge tempRun time MinutesIdle time MinutesEstimated AH's used per day
3-3.6-1.44.44.62.679.41719.06
4-6.3-3.92.42.63.259.58321.84
5-7.9-4.81.11.34926.4
6-9.9-7.1-0.305.33931.98
Temperature measurements in celsius taken half way up inside of compartments on normal setting.

Evakool (47L) uses about 30AH per day, 1.25AH per hour on setting 5, -8 freezer and +2 fridge at around 30C. On normal setting uses 3.6A and economy 2.4A (runs for twice as long as normal setting).
With two thick cable ties at bottom of freezer/fridge divider to leave gap of a few mm's to allow cold air to pass under divider into fridge area, holes in divider are not enough to allow cold air through. Also placed a high density sleeping mat folded in half for fridge to sit on. Evakool power connector is hard wired to fuse panel via 2.5mm2 cable. Use original 12 volt lead supplied for AC adaptor.


Basic setup - Easter 2013 (may replace 25L water container with 59L water tank - boxed in or 50L hanging 4x4 flexitank water bladder tank.).

Dual battery and voltage sensitive relay (VSR) installation.
It was time to install a dual battery system in the 4WD (1999 Toyota Prado RV6).
Installed a Fullriver DC105-12 or other site 105AH AGM deep cycle battery in a battery box (can hold up to a 120AH battery) in the rear cargo area (warranty void if mounted in engine bay due to heat).
Flooded (wet) deep cycle batteries are dangerous and illegal inside a vehicle, only use AGM and Gel (spillproof and leakproof).
Battery box is held down by a 300KG lashing capacity polyester webbing strape passed through two slots cut in a piece of aluminium checker plate bolted to the floor using existing holes under the carpet (so it can not fly around in the event of an accident, a 30kg missile).

Met a couple in the Kimberleys - Gibb River Road, they were just running their fridge off one/main battery and needed to be jump started on on few occasions, they ended up running thier car engine a few times a day to keep main battery charged.
Was originally going to replace the main battery with a larger hybrid battery (both starting and deep cycle) but decided to install a dual battery system instead. Glad i did.


Battery box, fridge/freezer power cable and cigarette lighter socket behind back seat.

This was isolated from the main battery by a 100A continuous duty solenoid controlled by a modified voltage sensitive controller (on 13.4v and off 12.9v with 13 sec delay, old settings on 12.9v and off 12.6v) with 4 leds, linked, charged (>12.44v), inter (>12v<12.44v) and low (<12v) and switch to manually link batteries in case main battery is flat. Current drain 11.6mA from main battery and 13.9/13.9/12mA from auxiliary battery, depending on which LED is lit on auxiliary battery status.
Also solenoid operates, connecting main battery, when auxiliary battery reaches 13.6v (old setting 12.9v), when charging auxiliary battery from solar.
This was installed previously on another 4WD with a BP L100 powerbloc flooded deep cycle battery (90AH) that died prematurely from sulfation. Looking through the vent caps on top, the normally gray lead plates were all white.
Also fitted a voltage spike arrestor (surge protector) across battery to protect vital engine management computer (ECU) and other sensitive electronic equipment from damage/failure.

100A continuous duty solenoid, voltage sensitive controller (dual sensing) and auxiliary battery status.

This was all connected using 0.42m (to solenoid), 5m (to back of vehicle) and 1.27m (earth lead) of double insulated 16mm sq automotive or marine cable terminated on 16mm/8mm hole lugs covered in red/black heatshrink tubing and loom tube (split, ribbed conduit) with 70A circuit breakers at each end, 5 core cable to controller, 8 B&S - 85A (7.91mm sq) cable to via 50A fuse and 2.5mm sq cable from 6 way blade fuse panel.
This system worked fine for 3 months touring Western Australia powering fridge/freezer 24/7, a 12v 11w fluorescent work light (0.78A), 12v 26cm (10.5") DSE colour SD LCD TV with in built DVD player (DVD/digital tv/analogue tv/av in - 0.67/0.7/0.48/0.16A), now discontinued, new model and 12v WD TV live media player plus WD elements 320GB USB portable 2.5" hard disk drive (0.65A) - requires a cigarette lighter plug to 2.5mm DC plug (running on 12.6v at night) or regulated 12v (if running on 13.6 - 14.4v e.g. solar during day or you would destroy it pretty quickly otherwise) and a 5m cigarette lighter plug to cigarette lighter 3 way socket 1.84mm2 extension lead (old 1m lead removed) up to a rooftop tent on wet and/or cold nights for up to 3 hours (quite time after 9.00PM in camping grounds).
TV was connected to a caravan VHF/UHF antenna via 6m of coax cable.

Many 4WD's have anti vibration mounts of rubber between major body connections and the earth path is not always clear. If in doubt run an earth back to battery or known good solid earth.
This happened to me, measured 0.5v drop at 5A across earth on rear external cigarette lighter socket, moved it to a different spot on chassis, now reads 5mv drop.

Zip (not YKK) on vinyl cover of roof top tent will no longer zip up after 3.5 months of continuous use in extreme dusty environments and have always kept the zippers chain clean (with an old toothbrush and some warm soapy water) and well lubricated with candle (paraffin), bees wax, silicone spray or dri lube. Slider may be worn or loose, so may try gently squeezing the slider with a pair of pliers to tighten it up (works a treat).
Have replaced foam mattress with a thicker/higher density one.Velcro will no longer hold, so will need to be replaced with something better.
Will replace roof top tent with a hard top/fibreglass hull one in near future but can I justify the price, only 10 seconds to set up and 30 seconds to stow instead of a few minutes for the old one. More streamed lined so will use less fuel.
Biggest disadvantage is that your vehicle is immobilised, then when you want to do day trips, you pack it up, on return, someone has pinched your camping spot (has happened alot), unless you reserve it with a table and chair, if you have to get up in the middle of the night. Can add 10-30% to fuel consumption, windy days (fly flaps all night) and packing it up while wet.
Upside bedding and pillows stay up there, leaves more room in 4WD, quick to set up, away from creepy crawlies and crocodiles, rough rocky ground is no problem, just needs to be level, are great for a trip where you're moving frequently.

Power consumption per day
AccessoryPower use per hour (amps)HoursTotal AH
Fridge/freezer1.25 (averaged)2430
11w fluorescent light0.783.52.73
LCD TV - digital tv0.710.7
LCD TV - av in0.1620.32
WD TV live + HDD0.6521.3
   35


Kimberley Entrance Caravan Park - Derby, WA (11 Jun 2010).

For most of the trip, leds showed charged but towards the end of trip was showing inter charge in the morning, every now and than there would be a strange smell of hot rotten eggs (hydrogen sulphide gas being released from battery - this generally happens when the electrolyte is nearly dried out and the battery is receiving a charge current due to localized hot spots or arcing within a defective cell).

After I got home a week later battery was showing inter charge, so charged over night, a few days later battery was showing low charge, after placing on charger after a few minutes current dropped to zero amps and would only run fridge/freezer for a few minutes before stopping.
So took battery back to supplier and they put battery on charge, then later tested it and found that all 6 cells were stuffed.
So I received a replacement battery at no cost, supplier said they only get a 2% fail rate on fullriver batteries.

When camping for a few days in the one spot, would use a 100w folding solar panel via 15m of twin 4.59mm (6mm - 31A) sq cable and 6A PWM (pulse width modulation) solar regulator (old model MP-3128), new model MP-3720.
The JUTA CMP12 12A regulator (simple on-off regulator, 30% less efficient than PWM, 70% less efficient than MPPT) which come with solar panel, interfered with solenoid system, causing solenoid to chatter, once auxiliary battery was charged, it tried to operate solenoid (700mA) to charge main battery.


Hot spots (electrical heating) or 'snail tracks' (micro cracks) on Rich Solar RS-M50 solar cells, still puts out maximum voltage/current (Voc and Isc), but for how long?

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT).
The solar regulator adjusts the duty cycle of the switching frequency (pulse width modulation), to find the point where the solar panel is producing the most power.
solar voltage x solar current = solar power.
Where as a normal PWM solar regulator uses pulse width modulation to regulate the output voltage.
Once the output voltage on a MPPT regulator reaches say 14.4v it then transitions to a normal PWM regulator, current mode to voltage mode.

100w solar panel.
Voc = 21.96v
Isc = 6.28A
Vmp = 17.82v
Imp = 5.62A

17.82v x 5.62A = 100w in full sunlight at a particular temperature (standard test conditions)
Example charging at 10.5v, 12v and 14.4v

Normal PWM regulator and simple on-off regulators:
10.5v x 5.62A = 59 watts
12v x 5.62A = 67.44 watts
14.4v x 5.62A = 80.928 watts

Voltage loss in cable:
15m x 2 x 0.0041 (4.59mm2) x 5.62A = 0.691v (current cable - park car in shade)
15m x 2 x 0.00252 (8mm2) x 5.62A = 0.425v
12m x 2 x 0.0074 (2.5mm2) x 5.62A = 0.998v (old cable)

MPPT regulator:
15m x 2 x 0.0041 (4.59mm2) x 5.62A x 5.62A = 2.59w loss in cable.

At 10.5v (100w - 2.59w) x 0.95 (efficiency) /10.5v = 8.81A (92.5w)
At 12v (100w - 2.59w) x 0.95 (efficiency) /12v = 7.71A (92.5w)
At 14.4v (100w - 2.59w) x 0.95 (efficiency) /14.4v = 6.43A (92.5w)

As you can see from above, the PWM regulator is wasting 19 - 41 watts that could be sending 0.81 - 3.19A extra into your battery with a MPPT regulator depending on regulator efficiency (95-98%) and wiring (length and size).
With any MPPT controller, losses in wiring should be minimised by using heavy wiring, and the wiring should be kept as short as possible.
This is less important with a basic PWM regulator since excess voltage will be discarded anyway.
Also the solar regulator should be mounted as close to the battery as possible.

The excess 3.42 - 7.32 volts at maximum power point is converted into extra current by the buck converter in the MPPT regulator, average energy gain being 10%-25%, depending on operating environment, illumination (angle of solar panel/cloudy/sunny), temperature (cold/hot) and age of solar panel.
If temperature of the solar panel is high, you will not get 17.82 volts, you might get under 16 volts and gets worse as the temperature goes up.
You will get a better power gain in winter than in summer. Under very cold conditions a 100 watt panel is actually capable of putting over 108+ watts.
Solar panels have to have enough leeway built in them to perform under the worst of conditions.
Solar panel will convert about 16% of the incoming solar energy (light) to electricity.

A few manufactures are getting on the solar MPPT band wagon and putting out inferior products that don't perform as claimed. So buyer beware and do your homework/research.
Some MPPT manufactures only use solar voltage and not solar voltage x solar current = solar power to find maximum power point or contain no toroid core (doughnut looking transformer).

With 2 x 12v solar panels in series, it will suffer from shade quite badly.
If you cover half of one solar panel with shade it will drop the charge output quite dramatically, where as if they were 2 x 12v solar panels in parallel and you shaded one solar panel completely you would still have the other solar panel at full output.
You have to use the exact same model as the original solar panel, or else youll create an electrical mismatch with multiple sweet spots and regulator can only responds to the average.

12v dc to 230/240v ac inverters.
Handy for using items that can not be charged/used directly off 12v e.g. digital camera/video, shaver, mobile phone, satellite systems, etc.
There are two general types of inverters, true/pure sine wave or modified sine wave (modified square wave).



True/pure sine wave inverters produce power that is identical or better (free from interference/distortions/electrical noise) than the electricity from your power point at home.
Modified sine wave produces power that is not exactly the same as electricity from your domestic power point, it is sufficient for basic small power tools and most non sensitive electronic devices, but can damage some products or behave irrationally or overheating problems and additional electrical noise may be produced (buzzing sound) or a snowy picture on your TV screen.
Clocks that use the mains 50/60Hz and not a internal crystal for their timing and variable speed controllers or some chargers (use SCR's or Triac's) do not work on modified sine wave inverters.
To be on the safe side, only use a true/pure sine wave inverter.
Choosing the right inverter size depends on total wattage drawn by items connected to inverter, then add 50% more to account for peaks or spikes in the power draw. Some items, such as a drill, requires additional start-up (surge) wattage (typically 2-3 times the continuous wattage required) so will require an inverter with at least double the wattage or surge rating to allow item to reliably start up.

If drawing a load of 100w from a 380 Watt 12VDC to 230VAC pure sine wave inverter how much current is being drawn from 12v battery.

100 / 10 = 10 Amps (simple worst case guide).

To allow for inverter efficiency, in this case 83%.
at 12V (100 / 12) / 0.83 = 10.04 Amps.
at 14V (100 / 14) / 0.83 = 8.61 Amps.

As you can see, the amp hour rating of a battery is the most important measure when choosing a battery for power inverter use, to get the required run time you require.

If using a laptop or notebook then a 90W automatic car laptop power supply 3.75A or 150W car laptop power supply 6A or 50W in-car mini notebook power supply 3A would use less current than using a mains laptop/notebook power supply plugged into a 12v dc to 230v ac inverter (12v to 230v then 230v to 15 - 24v).

Regulated 12 volt supply.
Some devices will only run on a regulated 12 volt supply and will self-destruct if connected to the typical 13.8 - 14.4 volts of a car's electrical system.
A 11 - 28V to 12v 6A DC-DC Converter is required.

Multiple batteries in parallel connection to form one larger bank.
Each batteries voltage must be equal e.g. 12v and of the same age, model, capacity (AH) and chemistry (flooded/sealed, gel or AGM). Connect system to the positive of the first battery and negative to the last battery so that batteries will be charged/discharged equally.

Charge equaliser.
When 12v is taken from the lower battery (one connected to negative earth/ground) in a series two battery 24v setup to power 12v equipment, all the charge is taken from the lower battery and not the upper battery. A charge equaliser will ensure an equal charge (voltage) across the two batteries. Without flattening the lower battery or overcharging the upper battery.
Alternatively, you can charge a 12 volt auxiliary battery from the 24 volt system via a battery isolator.

State of Charge (SOC).
The easiest way to determine how much charge you have left in your battery is with a digital multimeter or voltmeter.
The following chart, column two compensates for 12v batteries that are in use (under load).
The third column is the open circuit voltage (OCV) of a fullriver 12v battery.

State of Charge Under load V Fullriver OCV Notes
100% 12.7+ 12.83+ Fully charged battery
90% 12.5 12.72  
80% 12.42 12.60 Long battery life above this point
70% 12.32 12.47  
60% 12.20 12.34  
50% 12.06 12.20 Try not to discharge below this point
40% 11.9 12.06  
30% 11.75 11.91 Shorter battery life below this point
20% 11.58 11.76  
10% 11.31 11.61  
0 10.5 10.5 Flat battery

Why batteries fail. Battery to battery charger installation.
Not wanting to destroy another battery within 6 months, brought a CTEK D250S dual (program/firmware/software version B33) battery to battery charger with 20A output.
Apparently the CTEK D250s dual program/firmware/software is up to version B50 (22 Feb 2013) with more MPPT enhancements (2 Feb 2013).

At that time Redarc only had the BCDC1240 model and was damaging batteries, so later they brought out its smaller brother the BCDC1225 then the 'LV' models.


CTEK D250S dual beside back seat. RIP (12 Feb 2011 - 21 Dec 2013)

On first big test of CTEK D250S dual unit on a trip to Cape Otway over Christmas 2011, with a stop over in Geelong for 3 days, using solar panel for 10 hours on each day in bright sun light. Battery was showing 11.98 volts in the morning after 3 days, after arriving at Cape Otway after 2.5 hours, battery wasn't fully charged, it hadn't reached the float stage.
After staying for 3 nights using a 100w solar panel for half a day (sunny) and a few hours on the other two days (cloudy) and running car engine to try and keep some charge in battery.

Met a couple down there, their century auxiliary battery died prematurely, mounted under bonnet using solenoid system, so they replaced it with a Optima battery, it runs their engel fridge for two days.

After getting home, disappointed in CTEK, decided to check how much current the CTEK D250S dual is putting into auxiliary battery on solar.

CTEK D250S dual readings are a average due to fluctuating levels in bright sun light with clear blue skies.
Solar panel (watts)Solar VmpSolar Imp Solar Watts inSolar (volts) Solar (amps)Auxiliary battery (volts)Auxiliary battery (amps)Amps expectingMain battery input (volts)Main battery input (amps)Engine
10017.825.622817.751.5812.712.335.6 - 7.5  Off
10017.825.6261.914.004.4213.4720201416.58Idling
      13.4720201421Idling

The CTEK D250s dual was replaced later by a Redarc BCDC1225-LV 25A (Australian made) to suit current and future vehicles (ECU controlled alternator) and due to CTEK's poor performance on solar and low charge current.

Product comparison
FunctionRedarc BCDC1225-LVRedarc BCDC1225CTEK D250S DualSterling Wildside WS1230
12v or 24v12v only12v & 24v12v only12v
Maximun input voltage32v (28v on solar)32v (28v on solar)22v 
Charge stage statusYesYesNo 
Output current25A25A20A30A
Ambient temperature range-20C to +80C-20C to +80C-20C to +50C 
De-rate output current>55C at 85C no charge current>55C at 85C no charge currentYes 
Standby CurrentMain battery 0mA / Aux battery <8mAMain battery 0mA / Aux battery <8mAMain battery 3.5mA / Aux battery 0.4mA1mA
Auxiliary battery type: Calcium/Standard lead acid/AGM/GelAdjustableAdjustableNot adjustableAdjustable
Solar MPPTYesYesYesYes
Solar inputExternal changeover relay requiredExternal changeover relay requiredYesYes
Performance on solarExcellentNot testedTerribleNot tested
Suit ECU controlled alternatorYesNoExternal changeover relay requiredOn later versions
Unit On/OffIgnition>13.2v/<12.7v >26.4v/<25.4v>13.1v/<12.8v/Ignition with relayvoltage sense or ignition on later versions
Charging stages3354
Temperature compensationNoNoYesYes
Maintain main battery charge on solarNoNoYesYes
Desulfate modeNoNoYes 
Optional remote control/displayLED onlyLED onlyNoYes
Ingress protection ratingFully sealed - Silicone elastomerFully sealed - Silicone elastomerIP65 (Dust tight, water jets <16 minutes)IP68 (Dust tight, continuous immersion in water beyond 1metre) but not fan, easily replaced part
Dimensions (L x W x H)150 x 120 x 37mm150 x 120 x 37mm197 x 93 x 49mm145 x 110 x 120mm

Redarc also have a 40A version, but you would need a battery that could handle that current (optima or lifeline or deka AGM's) or sufficient amphours >159AH or it will end in the batteries early demise.
Redarc also have 6A and 20A models with no solar.
Sterling wideside also have 16A, 60A and 100A models.Couldn't get my hands on the 30A model, sold out.


Sterling Wildside battery to battery charger and MPPT solar regulator.

Tips for the longest battery life.
Dont leave battery in a low state of charge for an extended length of time. Charge battery as soon as possible.
Dont cycle battery at a low state of charge without regularly recharging fully.
Avoid ultra deep discharges (less than 30% SOC). The shallower the discharge (greater than 80% SOC), the longer the life.
Use the highest initial charging current available (up to 30% of the AH capacity at 20Hr rate or as specified by manufacturer) while staying within the temperature compensated bulk/absorption voltage range for battery.
Once fully charged, drop down to within the temperature compensated float voltage range for battery.

Charge rates.
The fullriver DC series or installation manual can only handle maximum allowable bulk charging current 0.35 x 105 (C20 rate) = 36.75A with constant voltage/current 3 stage charger.
Cycling application initial bulk charging current 0.25 x 105 (C20 rate) = 26.25A.
Recommended initial bulk charging current 0.20 x 105 (C20 rate) = 21A (on side of battery).
Century batteries maximum charge current limit 0.3 x 105 (C20 rate) = 31.5A.

DC to DC converter input current and bulk charge current at 20%, 25% and 30% of the AH capacity @ 20Hr rate
Maximun input current (A)Charge current (A)Minimum battery size (AH) capacity x 0.2Minimum battery size (AH) capacity x 0.25Minimum battery size (AH) capacity x 0.3
8.46302420
22.416806453
28201008067
352512510083
4230150120100
5640200160133
8460300240200
140100500400333

Be carefull not to over tax your alternator (e.g. 80A x 0.6 (60%) = 48A continuously) or it will lead to your alternator's early demise.
If the "ALT" warning light (charging) comes on or dim or flickers or voltage across battery drops when you turn on the headlights or windshield wipers or fan at max, then your alternator is running at or near maximum capacity (100%).

Measuring initial charging current.
After measuring charge current at 64A peak then settling on 58A at 13.5v within a few seconds, with battery initially at 11.04v. Current gradually tapers off over time to less than 1A as battery voltage rises to near 14.3v.
With 25AH discharge from fully charged (to simulate overnight stop of 16 hrs), measured current at 42A and decreasing and voltage at 13.68v.
Only did short tests, less than a minute, so as not to damage new battery.

So old battery was definitely dying a slow death from overcharging from too much current and voltage (no float mode).
The general rule with deep cycle batteries is if you discharge it slow, you charge it slow, plus normal charge rate is 10 - 20% of batteries amp hour (AH).
Some of the cost of a battery to battery charger will be saved in the extended life of your first set of batteries.
The recent trend to dc-dc alternator charging was inevitable, Collyn Rivers talks DC-DC charging in the Automotive & Electrical News April May 2012 edition, read full article and technically speaking Aug-Sept 2012.
Multi stage battery charging profile extends the life of your batteries by ensuring a full charge and conditioning, as well as entering a float mode and the ability to mix different battery types (GEL, AGM, flooded, VRLA or calcium) compared to main starting battery.
Lights, accessories and engine power consumption leaves about 80 - 22 = 58A spare. Depending on cable size and length, DC to DC converter input current can be up to 1.4 times its output current, if input voltage is significantly lower than output voltage.

Modifying old setup.
Removed continuous duty solenoid, controller and 1.24m, 16mm2 battery negative earth lead (1.6mV @ 1A) and replaced with 1.395m of 25mm2 cable to use as a current shunt (50A/50mV) and voltage/current/AH digital power meter via 5m of cable to show auxiliary battery status and 3 pole double throw switch to show charge/discharge current by reversing 2 connections to shunt and 2 connections to ground/earth (one to each side of shunt).

Installing Redarc.
The output (brown) and ground (black - include 1mm2 wire for relay with standard blade connector at one end) wires were double crimped using a CAL6 butt splice to 7.91mm2 (8 B&S) cable and covered in heatshrink.
The output connects via 2 x 15A blade fuses wired in parallel on 6 way blade fuse panel connected to auxiliary battery.
Solar function connects via 4.59mm2 (6mm) cable with no fuse (solar panels are current limiting) to external merit socket.
The solar and BCDC1225-LV earth was connected to the auxiliary battery common earthing point on chassis.

The input (red) wire was crimped to a large spade connector as was the solar and main battery wire (via 5AG fuse holder (beware of bad fuses or bad fuse holders) and 40A 5AG fuse connected to 16mm2 cable from main battery) on separate connectors.
The orange (battery select - AGM) and green (external LED) were left disconnected and covered in heatshrink.
The blue (input select/ignition) was crimped along with the wire going to the ignition switch to a standard blade connector.
The ignition switch wire was connected using a quick splice connector to red with blue trace wire on Prado (behind fuse panel on drivers side). A wire tap standard and mini blade fuse is another option.
Warning, DO NOT connect ignition wire to accessories position on ignition switch or you will flatten main battery when e.g. listening to radio, if auxiliary battery is not at full charge.
All the five spade connectors were covered in heatshrink (unsulated ones) then plugged into a 60A changeover relay.

Redarc BCDC1225-LV and installed beside back seat

Preliminary testing of Redarc, readings are a average due to fluctuating levels in bright sun light with clear blue skies.
Solar panel (watts)Solar VmpSolar Imp Solar Watts inSolar (volts) Solar (amps)Auxiliary battery (volts)Auxiliary battery (amps)Amps expectingMain battery input (volts)Main battery input (amps)Engine
10017.825.6282.314.975.512.786.25.6 - 7.5  Off
      13.59252514.0025.2Idling
      14.1252513.9926.2Idling

Now for the big test over the Christmas holiday period (Dec 2013 - Jan 2014).

Redarc BCDC1225-LV feedback.
Brilliant little unit, first MPPT regulator i've owned that does what its supposted to do, seen up to 7 amps going into the auxiliary battery from a 100w solar panel (5.62A).
In the bulk charging stage the auxiliary battery still receives 21.4 amps while fridge/freezer is cycing.
At around 2 - 3 amps in the absorption stage it transitions to the final float stage.
When fridge/freezer is cycing, it doesn't seem to effect the float stage (doesn't go back to bulk/absorption stages).
Every 100 seconds it briefly interrupts charging to examine the input voltage at no load (no voltage drop over the cable run) from alternator or solar then continues charging if voltage is within range.
The 105AH fullriver battery seems to be handling the 25 amps OK, no strange battery smells as yet. Interesting to see if it effects its service life.

Another Redarc BCDC1225 feedback page.
In-vehicle battery charger review by Pat Callinan on YouTube.

Merit plug, metal merit socket, plastic merit socket, 6/9/14mm2 50A anderson plug/socket and weatherproof cigarette lighter socket.

Testing battery.
Did a battery capacity test on fullriver battery at average 4.9A (old headlight) over 20hrs and 14 min to 10.5v, battery still has 99AH (94%) after 15 months, now 3 years and 7 months old (Apr 2014) and still going strong.
When fullriver battery dies or down to 80% (84AH) of the original capacity, will replace it with a 120AH model from a different brand with higher recharge rate and cyclic service life.

Reduce charge current.
Could have used a smaller cable size to reduce charge current.
Would take far longer to charge than a battery to battery charger due to charge current tapering off over time.

To get an idea, some maths.
With 16mm2 cable:
58A x 6.69m x 0.00115ohms = 0.45v (voltage drop across cable, if using earth return cable them multiply result by 2).
14.3 - 13.5 - 0.45 = 0.35v (total voltage drop across circuit breakers, connections and chassis resistance).
R = 0.35 / 58 = 0.006 ohms.

Battery terminal voltage on charge and discharge.
charge: U = E + IRc and I = (U - E)/Rc and Rc = (U - E)/I
discharge: U = E - IRc
U = terminal voltage (volts).
E = battery voltage under no load (volts).
I = current (amps).
Rc = battery internal resistance (ohms), varies on the batteries age, temperature, state of charge, cell's design, construction and condition.

Using information from above measurements.
Rc = (13.5 - 11.04) / 58 = 0.0424 ohms (from battery specifications fully charged 0.004 ohms)

With 13.5mm2 cable with 70A circuit breaker:
(14.3 - 11.04) / (0.0424 + (6.69m x 0.0014ohms) + 0.006) = 56.43A (slight change in charge current, compared to 16mm2 cable).

With 10mm2 cable with 60A circuit breaker:
(14.3 - 11.04) / (0.0424 + (5.42m x 0.00183ohms) + (1.27m x 0.0014ohms) + 0.006) = 54.25A or 53.76A (change 13.5mm2 cable for 10mm2 earth lead).

Any cable less than 10mm2 will trip corresponding size circuit breaker (see table below), using the same length of cable.

To charge battery at around 36A maximum, minimum cable can use is 7.91mm2 (8 B&S) at 0.0024 ohms/metre (from table below).
U = 11.04 + (36 x 0.0424) = 12.57 v
R = (14.3 - 12.57) / 36 = 0.048 ohms
R = 0.048 - 0.006 = 0.042 ohms
Length of cable required = 0.042 / 0.0024 = 17.5m, half result if using earth return cable (DO NOT coil cable, creates hot spot - fire hazard due to heat build up).
Power dissipated per 100mm of cable (36 x 36 x 0.042) / (17.5 x 10) = 0.31w, total power dissipated over cable length 54.43w.
Short circuit current = 12 / 0.042 = 285.71A (can it blow/trip fuse/circuit breaker without delay).
50A circuit breakers required (from table below) to suit cable fuse rating.

Another option is to charge the auxiliary battery through a 12v to 240v inverter and 240v battery charger.

Another option is to add a second auxiliary battery of same size (AH) to share the charge current 58 / 2 = 29A.
or
Replace the main battery with a hybrid battery and have the auxiliary battery in the back permanently connected through the two circuit breakers, giving more amp hours with 1200A or 1900A or 2000A jumpstart power pack as backup in case main/auxiliary battery will not start motor.

Power dissipation
As power flows through a wire that resistance causes heat, too much and the insulation breaks down over time, and at some point it will melt leaving the wire exposed to shorts to chassis.
With higher ambient temperatures, it takes less current to reach operating limits of cable e.g. in engine bay.
The heat can even be enough to start a electrical fire in the surrounding material e.g. under carpet in vehicle, cannot dissipate heat as easily as open air.
So using the right size wires is important for you and your vehicles safety, if unsure ask someone who knows what their doing (qualified auto electrician), better to be safe than sorry.
Also as your wiring runs get longer you need to use a larger wire size to compensate for increased voltage drop e.g. vehicle to caravan.

The following equation is useful in choosing the required wire:
R = E / (I x L)

R = Resistance of wire in Ohm/m (should be equal to or less than, from table below and wire can carry required current).
E = Maximum allowable voltage drop in the wiring in volts (0.25v).
I = Current drawn by appliance in amps (= Wattage/Voltage).
L = Length of wire of the complete circuit in metres (count twice - both in and out).

The following equations is useful in finding power dissipated in wire:
P = I x I x R
P = (V x V)/ R
P = I x V

P = power (watts) = heat.
I = current (amps).
R = resistance (ohms).
V = voltage (volts).

Power dissipation over 6.69m length of cable.
for 16mm2 cable: 58 x 0.45 = 26.1w or per 100mm section 0.39w.
for 13.5mm2 cable: 58 x 0.54 = 31.32w or per 100mm section 0.47w.

Tested with 0.1 ohm 5 watt resistor.
0.5w (warm).
1.0w (warmer).
1.5w (hot).
2.0w (hotter).
2.5w (too hot to touch).

Fuses and circuit breakers
There are two types of fuses instantaneous (fast blow), blows immediately when its rated current is exceeded and time delay (slow blow), sustains current in excess of their current rating for a short period before blowing e.g. 70A circuit breaker will trip within 1 minute at 90A load and within a few milliseconds under short circuit conditions.
Fuse current rating should be selected to be 135% of the steady-state current of device.
Cable needs to be sized to suit fuse current rating and able to carry the extra fault current, or else cable will melt/burn before fuse blows.

Cable specifications and maximum fuse rating

Cable specifications (will vary with cable manufacturer and temperature rating of cable)
Nominal area (mm2)Auto cable (mm)Amp rating at 30CMax fuse ratingNearest SAE (B&S) (AWG)Resistance at 20C (ohms/m)
0.22 1.41240.088
0.5 7520.50.03893
0.56275 0.0331
0.75 85 0.02523
1 107.5170.018
1.133107.516.50.0165
1.5 1510 0.012
1.844151014.50.0101
2.5 2015130.0074
2.95272012.50.0064
4 3625110.0046
4.596453010.50.0041
6 4835 0.003
7.919745080.0024
10 846070.00183
13.56 1037060.0014
16 11070 0.00115
20.28 1359040.0009
25 168110 0.00078
25.72 16811030.0007
32 188120 0.00062
32.15 18812020.0006
35 210135 0.000554
39.55 21013510.0005
49.20 24615000.0004
50 246150 0.000386
64.15 2922002/00.0003
70 305200 0.000272
83.19 3352003/00.00023
95 360250 0.0002
99.27 3992504/00.00018

Alternator.
Running alternator at full output for an excessive period of time (more than 15-30 minutes) will lead to burned windings - after 20 hours in the stator and cause premature alternator failure.
The fan at the front or internal of the alternator sucks air through the alternator from the back to the front, ensuring cooler air to cool the internal parts.
The average original equipment manufacturer (OEM) alternator is rated for about a 60 percent duty cycle, e.g. 80A x 0.6 = 48A continuously.
An alternator typically takes about 1 HP (745.7 watts) for every 25 amps of power generated.
How to spot problems with alternators and find solutions and alternator secrets.
Top 5 signs of alternator problems.

In the latest model vehicles, some alternators are ECU controlled and can drop the charge voltage to as low as 12.7 volts. On Toyota Prado turbo diesel 120 series (2/2003 - 11/2009) down to 13.2 volts.

Prado diesel 1KD-FTV D-4D models from 08/2006 to 11/2007 has problems with injectors. Started installing lastest DLC (diamond like carbon) coated injectors, part number 23670-39316 from 12/2007 and reprogramming the ECU. The earlier models, will not take the latest injector part number. Replace the old seats with part number 11176-30011 as soon as possible, to avoid a hefty bill.
Completely different injectors (not compatable with the 120 series) and mapping of the ECU on 150 series.

Also vehicles with regenerative braking, have the same problem and can drop the charge voltage to as low as 12.5 volts.
Most battery to battery chargers and electronic voltage sensing isolators/relays (VSR's) connect at 13.2 - 13.4 volts and disconnect at 12.7 - 12.9 volts.
This means the auxiliary battery simply cannot get fully charged or may not charge at all when engine is warm.
Redarc have solved this problem with the BCDC1225-LV 25A and BCDC1240-LV 40A and Sterling Power new battery to battery chargers have both a auto setting and a ignition setting.

Expect brushes on an alternator to last for in excess of 160,000 km's before they need replacing. So inspect the brushes during the timing belt service.

At 144170km main battery voltage was showing 13.2v at idle and 13.9v at fast idle. Managed to get home OK.


Brush holder installed over slip rings on Denso alternator, brushes at centre of picture.

Checked brushes (minimum exposed length 1.5mm, standard 10.5mm) on alternator, still 6.5mm left, so good for another 140,000km's. Cleaned out all the dirt/dust and carbon powder, polished copper slip rings with very fine emery paper (cloth damped with methylated spirits probaby would have been better), reassembled alternator, all OK now.
Main battery voltage was fixed at 14.3v from about 100,000km, now main battery voltage varies between 14.3v and 13.6v over time as engine warms up, also depends on ambient temperature.
Pulling the connector out, there was a fine white dust (dirt/dust or dried up dielectric grease?) on terminals could have been the problem or excess carbon powder shorting things out or dirty/oxidised slip rings.


Denso alternator with end cover removed.
Top - diode pack, middle - brush holder, bottom - connector and regulator.

Starter motor.
Petrol engine starter motors (2.5kW - series field DC motor) can draw on average of 200 - 300 amps, diesel engines have a very high compression ratio and can draw on average of 300 - 500 amps.
Amps can be much higher on initial turn over as it has to overcome the inertia of the stationary flywheel/engine.

2500w / 12v = 208.33 Amps
If cranking for 3 seconds: 208.33A x (3 / (60 x 60)) = 0.174 AH

Capacity: 55AH (new battery) at 25C
Peukert exponent: 1.2
Peukert Capacity = 20(55/20)1.2 = 67.33 at 1 amp discharge
Available cranking time = (67.33/208.331.2) x 60 = 6 mins 40 secs (actual time will be less than this, due to initial higher current, age of battery and decreasing temperature).

As you can see it takes very little amp hours (AH) from battery so alternator can quicky recharge battery in a few minutes. Battery just needs to suppy heaps of amps for that short period.

Battery charging efficiency factor.
Battery charging efficiency factor for flooded = 1.25 (80%) or 1.2 (83.3%), GEL = 1.1 (90.9%) and AGM = 1.15 (87%). Restoring the last 10 - 15% of a full charge requires typically 2 - 3 hours.

Peukert exponent.
Discharging at higher currents reduces the total capacity available in battery e.g. 20Hr rate at 5.25A - 105AH, 10Hr rate at 9.5A - 95AH and 5 HR rate at 17.2A - 86AH.

Peukert exponent for Fullriver DC105-12.
Reserve Minutes = 170 min @ 25 Amps.
t1 = 170/60 = 2.833 hrs.
20 Hour rating = 105 Ahr.
I2 = 105/20 = 5.25 Amps.
n = (log 20 - log 2.833)/(log 25 - log 5.25) = 1.252.

Note that Peukert's exponent increases as the battery ages.
The available capacity will decrease with increasing Peukert's exponent value.

Peukert exponent range for different types of batteries:
Flooded batteries, between 1.2 and 1.6
AGM batteries, between 1.05 and 1.15
Gel batteries, between 1.1 and 1.25

T=C(C/R)n-1/In or T=R(C/R)n/In or T = C/(I/(C/R))n X (R/C).
T = time in hours.
C = the specified capacity of the battery (at the specified hour rating).
I = the discharge current.
n = Peukert's exponent.
R = the hour rating ie 20 hours.
or
C = R(C/R)n = the Peukert Capacity of the battery when discharged at 1 amp.
T = C/In.

Cycle life.
Cycle life (number of cycles) of the battery is dependent on the depth of discharge in each cycle. The deeper the discharge is, the shorter the cycle life (smaller number of cycles), providing the same discharge current.
Typical charge/discharge cycle life for deep cycle battery at 100% depth of discharge (DOD) 600 cycles, 50% 1200 cycles and 30% 1900 cycles. Cycle times depends on ambient temperature, charger characteristics, type, model and make of battery.
Cycle end-of-life of a battery is when available battery capacity is 80% or less of the original capacity and replacement is recommended.
Battery capacity (how many amp-hours it can hold) is reduced as temperature goes down (battery life increases), and increased as temperature goes up (battery life is shortened). At freezing, capacity is reduced by 20%.
Discharging to 75% = 0.25 full cycle, 50% = 0.5 full cycle and 25% = 0.75 full cycle.
Battery Bank Ah Rating Required = (Total Ah consumed in between charge cycles) multiplied by 3.57 (28% DOD), to obtain long life out of battery. Normally multiplied by 2 (50% DOD) for the best storage vs cost factor.
Full capacity of a new battery is not available until a few charge/discharge cycles have accurred.

AGM deep cycle batteries (20 hour rate C/20 or as specified).
Century C12-100DA (103AH - up to 30A charge current) can not be mounted under bonnet. Every Battery and cheaper place.
Century C12-120DA (123AH - up to 36A charge current) can not be mounted under bonnet. Every Battery and cheaper place.
Fullriver DC105-12 (105AH - initial charging current 21A) can not be mounted under bonnet. R & J Batteries.
Fullriver DC120-12B (120AH - initial charging current 24A) can not be mounted under bonnet. R & J Batteries.
Fullriver DC150-12 (150AH - initial charging current 50A) can not be mounted under bonnet. R & J Batteries.
Optima blue/yellow top with long life (8 - 15 years) but low AH for size (would require two), no current limit as long as battery temperature remains below 51.7C, can be mounted under bonnet. Every Battery.
Lifeline GPL-31T 105AH - up to 262.5A charge current, long life 5 - 8 years, float charge 13.1 to 13.4 volts, can be mounted under bonnet. Every Battery.
Lifeline GPL-31XT 125AH - up to 312.5A charge current, long life 5 - 8 years, float charge 13.1 to 13.4 volts, can be mounted under bonnet. Every Battery.
Lifeline GPL-30HT 150AH - up to 375A charge current, long life 5 - 8 years, float charge 13.1 to 13.4 volts, can be mounted under bonnet. Every Battery and review.
Deka Intimidator/Seamate 8A31DTM 105AH - unlimited current recharging at regulated voltages and durability in harsh environments and temperature extremes. Every Battery.
Exide marine stowaway MSDC27 and MSDC31 110AH and 120AH.
Exide stowaway leisure - gold ST27DC105 105 AH, can be used in extreme temperatures.
Ritar RA12-100S 100AH @ 10Hr rate and up to 30A charge current.
Ritar RA12-120S 110AH @ 10Hr rate and up to 33A charge current.
Ultimate UL100-VO 100AH, can be fitted under the bonnet of vehicles without affecting the warranty and up to 25A charge current.
Ultimate UL110 107AH, should NOT be fitted under the bonnet of vehicles and up to 27A charge current.
Remco RM12-100DC 100AH, not suitable for under bonnet applications and up to 30A charge current.
OZ Charge OCB-100-12 98.4AH.
OZ Charge OCB-110-12 98.4AH.
OZ Charge OCB-120-12 107AH.

Narrow sleek profile (slim design - for compact spaces) deep cycle batteries - front mounted terminals.
Remco RM12-100FT 100AH @ 10Hr rate and up to 30A charge current.
Remco RM12-110FT 110AH @ 10Hr rate and up to 33A charge current.
Remco RM12-150FT 150AH @ 10Hr rate and up to 45A charge current.

Flooded deep cycle batteries.
Century N70T 100AH.
Century 89T 115AH.
Exide industrial DC12V105 and DC12V115 105AH and 115AH, vibration resistant, for extra heavy cycling duty.
Exide endurance ED6 and ED7 98AH and 125AH, built strong to withstand the pounding and vibration of 4WD, tech anti/anti.

Gel deep cycle batteries.
Fullriver DCG102-12 102AH.
Gel Tech 8G31DT 98AH.
Gel Tech 8G5SHP 125AH.
Century C12-100SDG 100AH.

Fuel cells.
EFOY fuel cell - runs on methanol, very expensive.

Battery to battery chargers.
Sterling wildside battery to battery charger with high performance solar MPPT, 16, 30, 60 and 100A models, quiescent current 1mA, Sterling Power, Reel Tackle and Sunergy.
Sterling wildside tow charger kit, 45A, no solar, UK on line store.
Sterling battey to battery chargers 40, 50, 100, 150 and 200A models with remote control, sleep current draw 0.8mA, no solar, RV Powerstream Pty Ltd and Autocraft.
Sterling Pro Charge B BBW1212, 30A for 30 minutes and approximately 20A continuous output after (current and duration estimates due to application, temperature, input battery and output battery variances), sleep current <1mA, no solar, UK on line store or USA on line store and manual.
Redarc BCDC1240 40A with solar MPPT (requires up to 55A input @ 10.5V) or BCDC1225 25A with solar MPPT (requires external 60A SPDT relay to connect solar - relay kit or Jaycar SY-4074, no load current < 100mA, standby current < 8mA (ign off), other models, good report and install. Solar - test open circuit, ON >17.5v and OFF < 17.2v. $490/$410 at Kulkyne.
Redarc BMS1215S2 15A, AC, DC and solar MPPT battery management system or BMS1230 30A.
ABR Sidewinder 30A dc to dc charger, no solar.
GSL Electronics 12v to 12v battery charger 25A, no solar.
Sidewinder BiSolator, quiescent current 0.5mA, no solar.
Amperor Power Integrator 25A, MPPT solar 100w+100w, operating Current 90mA, standby current 20mA, product review.
RanOx DC to DC multi stage battery charger/booster, adjustable output current 5 - 25A, quiescent current < 10mA, no solar (not available anymore).
Projecta DC20 3 Stage Automatic 12V to 12V 20A battery Charger, no solar.
Motormate 4-Stage DC-DC Chargers, SDC series, 20, 30 and 40A, no solar.
Matson MA20DC and MA20DCS with solar (120w min) 20A, quiescent current <10mA, ON at 13v and OFF at 12.2v.
4 Stage 40A DC to DC Boost Charger, 8-16VDC input voltage, no solar.
CTEK D250S Dual 20A - poor performance issues on solar.

Solar regulators.
Roc Solid solar regulator with MPPT PS-2024-D 20A with LCD display, use 12v or 24v solar panels, sleep current 9mA, good report on them or PS-2012-BC 20A, smaller, cheaper and no LCD display, can only use 12v solar panels, temperature compensation sensor for both models is extra.
Morningstar Sunsaver MPPT 15A, self-consumption 35mA.
MPP Solar PCM 2012 20A or PCM 3012 25A MPPT controller, standby power <1W (~80mA), review and youtube.
Avoid Wellsee MPPT solar controller - no toroid core (doughnut looking transformer), just an open air inductor, beware and aren't MPPT.
SolarMate (also rebadged as other names) charger controller MPPT1224-40 - only a PWM regulator, under 1.5 in manual "if insufficient PV power is available" (tested with 200w solar panel), self consumption over 160mA, they claim < 10mA, beware and isn't true MPPT.
Powertech 12v/24v 30A MPPT solar charge controller MP-3735, new model now includes external temperature sensor, <50ma idle current, beware.
12V/24V 120W/240W 10A true MPPT solar regulator with modified software, also known as tracer 1210 with original software, other tracers, self consumption <10mA(24v).
Juta solar charge controller MPPT-20 and inside unit and review
GSL Electronics solar regulators, quiescent current 40mA and review.
List of charge controller manufacturers.

Folding solar panels.
120w folding solar panel with waterproof MPPT solar regulator.
Flexible roll out 68/136/200w solar panel kits with 20/25A PCM-2012/PCM-3012 MPPT charge controller, rolasolar on youtube and review.

Battery monitors.
Nasa BM1 compact LCD display battery monitor and BM-1 battery monitor and BM-2 battery monitor, consumes 1.5mA.
Digital DC power meter (similar to Turnigy, Watt's Up and Doc Wattson meter's) MS-6170 20A or MS-6172 0 - 200A requires 50 mV external DC current shunt, consumes 8.5mA/12mA peak, only measures current in one direction, USB data adaptor.
Enerdrive battery monitors - eLite and ePro, consumes 9mA.
Xantrex LinkLITE and LinkPRO, consumes 9mA.

Battery chargers 240v.
Projecta Pro-charge - manual rejuvenation mode, normal (14.4v) and calcium (14.7v) battery type, float (13.7v), select charge rate and 6 stage.
Projecta intelli-charge - auto rejuvenate cycle, select chemistry type, power supply mode and 7 stage.

Electronic voltage sensing isolators.
Piranha DBE140S and DBE180S.
Redarc smart start SBI.
Projecta 100 and 150A, standby current 30mA.
Enerdrive, 13.3v engages, 12.8v disengages and dual sense.

Portable power.
Ark portable power.
Ecoboxx portable solar generator.
Solarpod 240, Buddy and Pro 1000.

12v dc to 230/240v ac true/pure sine wave inverters.
Sinergex 300w, 72 - 91% efficiency and 0.23A no load current draw.
Powertech 180w, 80% efficiency, <0.4A no load current draw.
Powertech 380w, 83% efficiency, 0.5A no load current draw and reviews, new model 360W, 84 - 91% efficiency, 0.4A no load current draw, 0.1A standby current draw.
Powertech 600w, 85% efficiency, <0.65 no load current draw and new model 800W, 84 - 91% efficiency, 0.5A no load current draw, 0.15A standby current draw.
Projecta 300w, 85 - 90% efficiency and 0.5A no load current draw and review.
Victron 350w, 89% efficiency and 0.26A no load current draw.
Latronics 500w, 90% efficiency and 0.42A no load current draw.
8zed 150w with USB port, 'cup style', 90% efficiency and USB output of 5VDC at 2A.
8zed 300w, 90% efficiency and <0.7A no load current draw.
Cotek 350w, 86% efficiency, 1.2A no load current draw, 0.25A standby current draw and manual.
Exeltech 250W, 85 - 87% efficiency and 1.1A no load current draw and spec sheet.
Xantrex Prowatt SW - International 700W, 90% efficiency, <1.0A no load current draw.
Xantrex Prosine - International 1000W, 90% efficiency, <1.83 idle mode / <0.125A search mode no load current draw.
Morningstar 300W, 84 - 92% efficiency, 0.45A no load current draw, 55mA standby current draw and inverter off 25mA.

12v dc regulated car power adaptors.
12VDC 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5, 9 or 12VDC 1.5A Car Power Adaptor.
12VDC 3, 4.5, 5, 6, 7.5, 9.5, 12VDC 3A Car Power Adaptor with USB Outlet 5v 1A.
Digital Car Power Adaptor 1.5/3/4.5/5/6/7.5/9v 3A and USB 5v 500mA.
60W Regulated Car Power Adaptor 5, 6, 9 & 12V 5A.
5v 1A USB Car Adaptor.
Cup Holder Power Extender with Dual USB Sockets 5v 1A and 0.5A.
11 - 28V to 12v 6A.

Charge Equalisers.
Redarc charge equaliser on two battery 24V negative earth, 3 - 60A.
GSL REC-1240 and REC-1260, 40A and 60A.
Powercheq 2A.

Travel gadgets.
Travel buddy 12v oven, draws 6A.
Hema 4WD Maps app or HN6 Hema Navigator and reversing camera.
VMS Navigation (Apr 2013 - less map coverage than Hema).
40.64cm (16") LED TV (HD) & DVD player combo with personal video recorder (PVR), draws 3.33A, includes media player (AVI, MP4, MP3, WMA, JPEG and BMP), up to 1TB external USB drive.
Flexible LED light strips.
Narva 72433 9-64 Volt L.E.D Work Lamp Flood Beam - 1000 Lumens, 0.57A @ 12v.
Fuel filter funnel - removes water and harmful debris.
Water Watch - water in fuel alarm system.
Steinbauer extra power/torque module - does not interfere with diesel common rail pressure.
HD car event recorder with LCD & GPS.
50L hanging 4x4 flexitank water bladder tank.
BioLite camp stove.
Mean Mother electric winches.
Manual vs Automatic Transmissions.
Caravans, RVs & camping equipment.
Torque convertor lock-up manual control kit.
Automatic transmission temp gauge kit.
King springs and bilstein shock absorbers and youtube1 and youtube2.
Safari snorkel.
Oil catch can and other and info.
Long range tanks - aluminised steel - The Long Ranger - Brown Davis - Long Range Automotive (LRA).


2301 visits since 16/04/2013